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    西安翻译本科论文
    1.Introduction
    ThestudyofmenutranslationasanacademicfieldisarelativelynewareainChinaaswellasintheWest.Publishedresearchesofthisfieldarecountable.Thisthesisattemptstoemploythetwomostwidely-usedtranslationtendenciesofforeignizationanddomesticationaswellasliteraltranslationandfreetranslationinanalyzingtheEnglishtranslationofChinesemenus.ThisapproachofculturalanalysishappenstocaterforthefashionofculturalStudies.Asanintroduction,thischapterpresentsbackgroundofpresentresearch,researchobjectivesandthemethodologyemployed.Also,anoutlineofthestructureofthewholethesisisreported.
    1.1ResearchBackground
    Chinaisacountrywhichhasalonghistoryandboastsavarietyofcuisineswithdistinctfeatures.Chinesecuisineisregardedasagreatwonderofcollectionofcookingskillsinforeignpeople’seyes.Westernersareoftenattractedtothelooks,formsanddesignsofChinesefoodbesidestheirdeliciousaromaandtaste.WhilethesightofChinesefoodbringspleasure,thenamesofdishesalsocapturecloseattentionofforeignpeople.WhenpeoplefromdifferentculturalbackgroundenjoyChinesefood,theyareoftencuriousandeagertoknowtheexactmeaningofthenameofcertaindish.Theyarealsointerestedinitsorigin.Sincethenameofadishisthefirstimpressiongiventoadiningpersonwhenheorshedecidestoorderadish,itisimportanttoconveyaccurateinformationtothecustomer.Apreciseandinformativetranslationofadishnamecarriesasoundmessage,activatesinterestandenlivensappetite.Asthetitleofthethesissuggests,thecurrentresearchintendstodiscussforeignizationanddomesticationemployedinChinesemenutranslation.BasedontheexchangeoffoodandcuisinebetweenChinaandtheforeigncountries,andconfrontedwiththeformidableandtoweringtaskofChinesemenutranslation,thisthesisaimstoemployavarietyoftranslationmethodsandclassificationstoclarifyandaddresstheseproblemsandtoanswertheurgent
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    socialneeds,andtodiscussandtoexaminethefeaturesandimplicationsofChinesemenusbyvirtueoftranslationasatoolofbridginglanguageandculturaldifferencesunderaunifiedandstandardizedtranslationnorm.
    1.2ResearchObjectives
    Inrecentyears,theever-increasingimportanceoftheexchangeoffoodandcuisineculturebetweenChinaandtheWesthasbeenevident.Thecookingworldissodiverseandcaptivatingthatmeritsathickbrushofdescription.ForChina,itsrichcuisineculturehascontinuedtobeexportedoverseas,arousingworldwideacclaimedapplausetocementalastingreputation.Tobridgedifferentcultures,themenutranslation,asasignificantandindispensableparttoafinedish,playsanimportantroleandfacesahighdemandraisedbytheprofoundandcomplexnatureofChineseandforeignmenusandculinaryterms.Itisnoeasyjobtonamethedishesanditrequirespainstakingandstrenuousintellectualefforts.
    1.3Methodology
    ThemethodofthisresearchisbasedonalotofexamplesaregivenduringthediscussionsoftranslationofChinesemenus,especiallythosefrom4-starand5-starhotelsastheyaremoreprestigiousandinfluential,whichwillgiveaffluentevidencefortheauthor'sanalysis.Alltheseeffortsareexpectedtoincreasepeople'sawarenessoftheculturalconnotationandinformationhiddenindishnamesandfindouteffectiveapproachestorenderingChinesemenus,whichwillbehelpfulfortheinterculturalcommunication.
    1.4OutlineoftheThesis
    ThisthesisiscomposedofsixpartsPartOneintroducesthebackgroundofresearch,researchobjectivesandanoverviewof
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    thewholethesis.PartTwoprovidesacomprehensiveliteraturereviewofthetranslationtheoriesthatrelatedtoChinesemenutranslation,mainlyliteraltranslation,freetranslation,foreignizationanddomestication.ItclarifiesthebasicconceptsthatarerelatedtothecurrentresearchandtherelevantstudiesonChinesemenutranslationaresummarized.PartThreefocusesonthetranslationofChinesemenu,includingthedefinition,standardsandproblemsinexistingChinesemenutranslation.ThenthecausesareexploredtoarousethequestionoftranslatabilityofChinesemenu.PartfourcentersoncharacteristicsofChinesecuisineanddishnamesandtranslationprinciplesaswell.Itcanbedividedintofiveparts,includingfeaturesofChinesecuisine,richsourcesofChinesecuisine,characteristicsofChinesedishname,translationasinter-culturalcommunicationandtranslationprinciples.PartfiveconcentratesontheapplicationofforeignizationanddomesticationinChinesemenutranslation,inwhichtheconcreteapproachesaresuggestedindetails.Partsixoffersaconclusion.Inthischaptertheauthormakesasummaryofthewholethesis.Furthermore,theauthordiscussestheimplicationsandthelimitationsofthepresentstudy,andalsodevelopsthesuggestionsforfurtherstudyinthisfield.
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    2.CharacteristicsofChineseCuisineandDishNames
    2.1FeaturesofChineseCuisine
    Chinesecuisine,richandcolorful,has,asitsmainfeaturesdiversifiedcolor,aromaticflavor,andexcellenttaste.Withthesethreecharacteristics,Chinesecuisineisnotonlytastybutalsoaworkofartforpeopletoappreciate.TomakerealChinesefood,noneofthethreecharacteristics一color,aromaanddelicioustasteshouldbeexcluded.Foodwithdiversifiedcolorcanusuallygreatlyarousepeople'sappetite.Formanyyears,Chinesefoodpreparationhaspaidattentiontoaestheticappearance.Tohaveabright,pleasedandharmoniouscolorisoneofthemainprincipleswhencookingChinesefood.Toachievethis,addtwoorthreeingredientswithdifferentcolorsareaddedasdecorationtocomplementthemainingredient.Thus,itisnotonlythetasteofChinesecuisinethatmakesyouamazedbutalsoitsaestheticvalue.Chinesepeopleattachgreatimportancetothearomaofthedish.Usuallyaniseed,Chinesepricklyashseeds,cinnamonandotherspicesareaddedtohelpdispeltheingredients'particularsmells,suchasfoul,fishyandmuttonsmells.Alsosomeotherflavorslikeshallot,ginger,garlicorchili,cookingwineandsesameoilareaddedtomakethefoodfragrantinflavor.RegardedasthesouloftheChinesedish,tastecanbedividedintofiveclasses-sweet,sour,bitter,hotandsalty.Seasoningsuchassoysauce,sugar,vinegarandsaltinproperamountandindifferentsequences,contributetothetasteofthedish.InthevastlandofChina,thereareeatinghabitsof'South-Sweet,North-Salty,East-HotandWest-Sour'accordingtothedifferenttastesofthepeople.ThoseinsouthernChinaliketoaddmoresugarwhencookingthanothers.JiangsuCuisineoneoftheChinese‘EightCuisines’isrepresentativeof‘SouthSweet’.ShandongCuisinefeaturemoresaltandpeoplelivinginHunan,Hubei,Jiangxi,Guizho,Sichuanlikechilibest.SourflavorisfavoredbyShanxi,Fujian,Guangxipeopleandthenortheasterners.
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    2.2RichSourcesofChineseCuisine
    Chinesecuisinehasanumberofdifferentgenres,butthemostinfluentialandtypicalknownbythepublicarethe‘EightCuisines’.Theseareasfollows:ShandongCuisine,SichuanCuisine,GuangdongCuisine,FujianCuisine,JiangsuCuisine,ZhejiangCuisine,HunanCuisine,andAnhuiCuisine.Theessentialfactorsthatestablishtheformofagenrearecomplexandincludehistory,cookingfeatures,geography,climate,resourcesandlifestyles.Cuisinesfromdifferentregionsaresodistinctivethatsometimesdespitethefactthattwoareasaregeographicalneighborstheirstylesarecompletelyalien.
    2.2.1ShandongCuisine
    ThisisthelocalflavorofJinanCityandJiaodongpeninsuladerivedfromtheuseofshallotsandgarlic.Bothrestaurantchefsandthoseinfamiliesareexpertincookingseafood,soups,meatandoffal.Therecipesarethosethatoncedelightedtheroyalcourtandwereservedtotheemperor.
    2.2.2GuangdongCuisine
    GuangdongCuisinetakesfineandrareingredientsandiscookedwithpolishedskillsandinadaintystyle.Itemphasizesaflavorwhichisclearbutnotlight,refreshingbutnotcommon,tenderbutnotcrude.Insummerandautumnitpursuesclarityandinwinterandspring,alittlemoresubstance.Thesauteeddishesalwaysrelyuponexquisitepresentationinvolvingcuttingandcarvingskills.
    2.2.3SichuanCuisine
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    ThiscombinesthecuisinesfromChengduandChongqing.FromasearlyastheQingDynasty(1644一1911),bookshadsystematicallyrecordedatotalof38cookingmethodsliketoscald,wrap,bake,mix,stew,andadhere,etc.itfeaturespungentseasoningswhichwerefamedas‘ThreePeppers’(Chinesepricklyash,pepperandhotpepper),‘threearoma’(shallot,ginger,andgarlic),‘SevenTastes’(sweet,sour,tingling,spicy,bitter,piquant,andsalty),and‘eightflavors’(fish-flavored,sourwithspice,pepper-tingling,oddflavor,tinglingwithspice,redspicyoily,gingersauce,andhomecooking).
    2.2.4HunanCuisine
    Hunancuisinelaysastressontheuseofoil,densecolor,andtechniquesthatproducecrispness,softnessandtendernessaswellasthesavoryflavorsandspices.Stewedfins,friedfreshcabbagewithchestnuts,DongAnzichicken,immortalchickenwithfiveelements,areoffthehighestreputation.ChairmanMao,togetherwithotherleaderspraisedtheHunancuisinein1958.
    2.2.5JiangsuCuisine
    JiangsuCuisinedevelopedfromthelocalrecipesofYangzhou,SuzhouandNanjing.Itsmaincookingtechniquesarebraisingandstewing,therebyenhancingtheoriginalflavorandsauce.Theelegantcolor,novelsculpts,withsaltandsweettastewillsootheyourstomach.TheJiangsucuisinehasseveralbranches,includingShanghaicuisine,Nanjingcuisineisknownforitsduckrecipes,Suxicuisinewithfloweryhue,etc.
    2.2.6ZhejiangCuisine
    AsZhejiangcuisineconsistsofhundredsofsmalldelicaciesfromitsmaincities,ittakes
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    inHangzhou’sfinenessanddiversification,Ningbo'ssoftnessandoriginality,andShaoxing’spastoralinterests.Hangzhou,oncethecapitaloftheSouthernSongDynasty(1127一1279),itiscustomarytoendowcuisinewithdaintyplace-names.Thechieftechniquesofcookinglieinthemethodsusedsuchasfrying,quick-fry,stir-fry,braising,andsteamingthusrenderingthedishesbothsalubriousandsavory.
    2.2.7FujianCuisine
    Fujiancuisinehasfourdistinctivefeatures,thatis,finecuttingtechniques,alternativesoups,uniqueseasonings,andexquisitecooking.Chefscanalwayscutthethinjellyfishintothreepiecesandintoverythinthread.Andthankstotheabundantresourcesofmarineproducts,thesoupofthiscuisinegenrehasitsfreshnessandkeepsitsownsavorwithease.Theseasoningsaddsweetandsourflavorstothedishes.Toaddtoitsappealthefoodisservedinoronelegantbowlsorplates.
    2.2.8AnhuiCuisine
    ItismainlycomposedoflocalflavorsofHuizhouandotherareasalongtheYangtzeRiverandtheHuaiRiver.AmongthedishesontheAhhuicuisinemenu,youwillfindlessfriedorquick-frieddishesthanthosethatarebraised.Peopleherearenclinedtoaddhamasseasoningandsugarcandytoenrichthefreshnessandarequiteaccomplishedintheartofcooking.
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    3.TranslationofChineseMenu
    Inthispart,theauthorwillintroducethedefinitionandstandardsofmenutranslation.
    3.1DefinitionofMenuTranslation
    Tocloselydiscussandexaminethetopicofmenutranslation,thedefinitionofsuchtranslationmustbemadeclear.Menutranslationcanbedefinedthroughderivationofthedefinitionoftranslationingeneral.ByreferenceofCatford,J.C.,menutranslationmaybedefinedasfollows:Thereplacementoftextualmaterial(herebyreferredtoasdishnames)inonelanguagei.e.SourceLanguage(SL)byequivalenttextualmaterialinanotherlanguagei.e.TargetLanguage(TL).Andtheauthoralsotendstogivehisownsummarizedandpithierversionofthedefinitionmenutranslation:Menutranslationistheprocessofinter-lingualtransformationsemanticequivalenceinthespecificareaofmenuandtermsinculinaryculture
    3.2StandardsofMenuTranslation
    ToachieveaccuratemenutranslationfromChinesetoEnglish,themostimportantthingistohavecertainoverridingguidingprinciplesorstandardsinthisregard.Asfarastheauthorisconcerned,theforemoststandardisfaithfulnessinmeaning,whichmeansthemeaningoftranslateddishnamesinTLshallkeepahighfidelitywiththeoriginalnameinSL.Needlesstosay,thisruleisthefundamentalonetoensureaccuracywhichisthebasiccriterionoftranslationasawhole.Secondly,eleganceIsstyleshallalsobeconsidered.ThisstandardismainlyconcernedwithreadabilityofTLwhichrequiresthetranslatedversiontobeasauthenticandidiomaticinTLaspossible.Thisruleisalsoveryimportantasallthequalitiesofadishname,includingmeaning,styleandeventhesoundwhenitispronouncedincertainlanguagewillaffectacustomer'sfeelingaboutandimpressiononcertaindish.Rightrendition
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    canproducepositiveassociationinthemindofcustomers,calltheirattention,arousetheirinterest,andencourageandconvincedthemtotakethefood,thustransformingdesireintoaction.Whileashoddytranslationforevenadaintyfoodcanonlydampenpeople'sardorandstaveofftheirappetite.
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    4.ApplicationofForeignizationandDomesticationinChineseMenuTranslation
    Fromtheaboveanalysiswecanconcludethatmenutranslationneedsfollowingseveralprinciplesandnoonespecificmethodoftranslationisuniversallyapplicable.WithanindepthstudyoftheEnglishtranslationofmanydishandfoodnames,severalspecifictranslationprinciplesandruleswillberaisedandelaboratedtodiscusstheaspectsandtopresentacompleteandmulti-dimensionedpictureofthewaysandapproachesofChinesemenutranslation.
    4.1ApplicationofForeignization
    F.Schleienmacherstated(qtdbyA.Lefevere,2004)thatatranslatorhasonlytwowaysopentohimtobringbothhisauthorandhisreadertrulytogether:"Eitherheleavestheauthorinpeace,asmuchaspossible,andmovesthereadertowardhim.Orheleavesthereaderinpeaceasmuchaspossible,andmovestheauthortowardhim”Whathereferredtowaslatercalled."foreignization"and"domestication"byL.Venuti(Venuti,2004).SointhetranslationofChinesemenus,whatwecandoiseithertofollowtheoriginalasmuchaspossibleortomakechangesintheoriginaltoadapttothetargettext.Firstly,let'stakealookattheexamplesoffollowingtheoriginalasmuchaspossible.
    4.1.1Literaltranslation
    AstotheEnglishtranslationofChinesedishes,therearechieflytwotypes,onebeingliteraltranslation,andtheotherfreetranslation.Translatorschoosetheliteraltranslationmethodinsteadoffreetranslationmethodnotonlybecausetheypreferliteraltranslationtothefreeone,butduetodeep-seatedculturalreasonsaswell.
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    Generallyspeaking,ChinesecultureisverymuchdifferentfromWesternculture,initswaysoflife,values(includingethicalcriteria,ideology,religion,andrelevanttermsofaddressandrelationsofkinship),waysofthinking,andwriting.Thisdoesnotmean,however,thattheyaretotallydifferent.Humanbeingsdo,infact,havealotincommon.TheculturesofChineselanguageandEnglishlanguagecan,therefore,understandeachother,insuchawaythattheliteraryimageandexpressivenatureofChineselanguageneedn'tbegivenupintranslation.Forexample,Chinesecuisineisnotedforitsmultitudeofcookingmethods,suchcommoncookingmethodsasstewing(煲[bao],炖[dun]),boiling(煮[zhu]),frying(煎[jian]simering炖[dun]偎[wei]),braising(烧[shoo],炖[dun],炯[men]),baking(烘[hong],焙[pei])andsteaming(蒸[zheng]),roasting(烤[kao]),sauteing(炒[chao])arequitefamiliartotheforeignguests.Moreover,mostmaterialsandflavoringsusedincookingarealsoknowntobothChineseandpeoplefromEnglish-speakingcountries.Actually,amajorityofthenamesofChinesedishesarefact-tellingwhichactuallydescribeingredients,cookingmethodsandcharacteristicsofthedishes.Whilesomeofthenamescompriseallthreeoftheabovementionedfactors,someonlyincorporateoneortwo.Inthesecases,literaltranslationisacceptable.盐水虾[yanshuixid]BoiledShrimpwithSalt软炸里脊[ruanzhaliji]Soft-FriedPorkFillet清蒸甲鱼[qingzhengjiayu]SteamedTurtle烤乳猪[kaoruzhu]RoastSucklingPig香滑炒蛇背[xianghuachaoshebei]SauteedSlicedSnakeIntheabovementioneddishnames,"boiled""soft-fried""steamed""roast"“sauteed”areallcookingmethodsand“shrimp”,“porkfillet”,“turtle”,“suckingpig”and“snake”areallingredients.Intranslatingsuchkindsofmenus,theformof“Cookingmethod(s)+Majoringredient(s)”canbeadopted.笋尖炯肉[sunjianmenrou]SimmeredMeatwithBambooShoots香菇扒鸭[xidnggupaji]BraisedDuckwithMushrooms粉蒸排骨[fenzhengpaigu]SteamedSpareribsCoatedwithRicePowder
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    番茄炒蛋[fanqiechaodan]FriedScrambledEggswithTomato葱爆肉[congbaorou]SauteedSlicedPorkwithOnionShredSimmered,braised,steamed,fried,sauteedareallcookingmethods,meat,duck,spareribs,eggsandporkaremajoringredientsandbambooshoots,mushrooms,ricepowder,tomatoandonionshredareminoringredient.Theformof“CookingMethod(s)+Majoringredient(s)withminoringredient(s)”canbeusedintranslatingsuchChinesemenus.红烧全鱼[hongshaoquanyu]BraisedFishinBrownSauce蚝油鸡球[haoyoujiqiu]ChickenBallswithOysterSauce酒糟泡蛋[jiuzaopaodan]SweetenedPoachedEgginRiceWineResidue蜜汁火方[mizhihuofang]StewedHamwithLotusSeedsinHoneySauce豉椒生蚝[chijiaoshenghao]SauteedFreshOysterwithPepperandBlackBeanSauce白汁石斑鱼[baizhishibanyu]SlicedGaroupaCutletwithCreamSauceThiskindofChinesedishnamesaresimilartothepreviousmentionedone,buttherearecondimentsorrelishesinthesedishes,suchasbrownsauce,oystersauce,ricewineresidue,honeysauce,pepperandblackbeansauceandcreamsauce.Soinrenderingsuchnames,'wemayfollowtheformof“Cookingmethod(s)+Majoringredient(s)+(Otheringredient(s))with/inCondimentsorRelishes”.菠萝鸭片[boluoyapian]SlicedDuckwithPineapple锅巴海参[quobahaishen]CrispRicewithSeaCucumber火腿鸡片[huotuijipian]SlicedChickenwithHam蟹粉鱼唇[xiefenyuchun]Shark'sLipwithCrabmeat鲜蘑肉片[xianmoroupian]FreshMushroomandSlicedPorkItisobviousthatthecookingmethodsofthedishesarenotmentioned.Andintranslatingthem,wecanjustrendertheingredients.
    4.1.2LiteralTranslationwithAnnotation
    Culturaldifferencesresultinunderstandingproblemsineveryfieldincludingcuisineof
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    course.Whencompleteliteraltranslationishardfortargetlanguageviewerstoappreciate,anoteisneededthentomakethistransculturalcommunicationsuccessfullyachievedSometimes,though,therearedifferencesbetweenChineseandWesterncultures.Inthesecases,understandingcanbeachievedthroughexplanationsoradditionofrelatedwords.InChina,therearesomedisheswhichenjoyverystrongculturalallusionsorbackground.Westerners,however,knowlittleornothingabouttheseallusions.Undersuchcircumstances,literaltranslationstillworks,butrelevantexplanationsoradditionofrelatedwordsbecomenecessary.Forinstance,“叫花鸡”[jiaohuaji]isawell-knowndishinChina,andwecantranslateitliterallyinto“Beggar'sChicken".Necessaryexplanationinthiscasemustbefollowed,otherwiseforeignerswillbeconfused:"Beggar'sChicken":There'salegendarystoryconnectedtoit.Long,longagotherewasabeggar.Onedayhestoleachickenandwaspursuedbytheowner.Hewasalmostcaughtwhenhesuddenlyhituponagoodidea.Hesmearedthechickenalloverwithclaywhichhefoundnearbyandthrewitintotheirehehadbuilttocookit.Afteralongwhile,thebeggarremovedthemud-coatedchickenfromthefire.Whenhecrackedopentheclayhefound,tohisastonishment,thattheclaytogetherwiththefeatherhadformedahardshellinwhichthechickenhadbeenbakedintoadeliciousdishwithwonderfulflavor.Thatnighthehadaveryenjoyablemeal.That'swhythisdishhassuchname.Ofcourse;thiskindofexplanationcanonlybeemployedwhenthesituationallows.Nowadays,peoplepaymuchattentiontothedesignsofthemenuwhichleavelittlespaceforEnglishtranslation.Theabovementionedexplanationisobviouslytoolongtobeusedinthemenu;theEnglishtranslationmustbeconcisecomprehensive.Undoubtedly,manyculturaldifferencesexistbetweenChineseEnglishlanguage.Severaltypesofdifferencesfollow:
    4.1.2.1LiteralTranslationwithPeople’sName
    Chinaenjoysalongandprofoundcuisineculture.Amongthecolorfuldishes,somedrawtheirnamesfrompeople,especiallygreathistoricalfigures.Thesenotedpeopleinventsome
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    dishesandalsohavetheirfavoritedishes,and,astimegoesby,peopleliketonamethesedishesafterthem.ThesepeoplearewidelyknowninChina,butalmostunknowninnonChinesecultures.Wordsmustthereforebeaddedtoexplainthesenamesforthepurposeofbetterunderstanding.Examplesareasfollows:东坡肉[dongp6rou]PoetDongPo'sBraisedPork毛氏红烧肉[maoshihungshoorou]ChairmanMao'sFavoriteStewedPorkwithSoySauce左宗鸡[zuozongji]GeneralTso'sFavoriteChicken“DongPo”,ahistoricalfigureinChina,isafamouspoetinSongDynasty,whichisveryfamiliartoChinesereadersbutunfamiliartoEnglishreaders.Itisthereforenecessarytoadduptheexplanation“poet”soastomakesuretheEnglishreaderscanunderstandwhatitstandsfor.Soitiswiththeothertwodishnames.
    4.1.2.2LiteralTranslationwithNameofPlace
    Asfordisheswithlocalflavor,theyusuallyfeatureregionalnames.Chinesepeoplecanunderstandthespecialflavorthroughthedish'splacename.Forforeignpeople,however,sheerliteraltranslationisverydifficulttounderstand.Inthiscase,literaltranslationplusexplanationwillworkwell.Twodifferentwaysareoftenadoptedintranslating-suchmenuswithlocalplaceshighlighted.Forinstance:北京烤鸭〔beijingkaoji]BeijingRoastDuck蒙古烤肉[mengg6kaorou]MongolianBarbecue西湖醋鱼[xihucuyu]WestlakeSweetandSourFish松江妒鱼[songjidng1uyu]SongjiangRiverPerch扬州炒饭[yangzhouehaofan]YangzhouFriedRiceInsuchdishnames,thenamesofplacesareputinfront,whichformsarenderingpatternof“placename+cookingmethod(s)+majoringredient(s)”潮州卤水鸭[chaozhou1ushuiya]BraisedGoose,ChaozhouStyle山城辣子鸡[shanchenglaziji],ChongqingStyleFriedSpringChickenDicesin
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    RedPepper镇江肴肉[zhenjidngyd'orou]Salt-PreservedPorkSlices,ZhenjiangStyle杭州煨鸡[hangzhduweiji]BakedChicken,HangzhouStyle东江酿豆腐[dongjidngniangdoufu]BeanCurdStuffedwithMincedPork,DongjiangStyleInordertoemphasizethelocalflavorofthedishes,wemaytranslatetheingredients,etc.literallyandaddlocalnames+stylebehind.Thatis,“cookingmethod(s)+majoringredient(s),localname+style”.Allthesetendishesareverytypicallocaldishes,whichbelongtotheeightChinesecuisines.However,thiskindoftranslationisfarfromsatisfactoryforwesternerswhoknowlittleaboutChinesecuisineculture.InordertohelptheforeignpeoplehaveabetterunderstandingofChinesedishes,moreinformationneedstobegivenwhichhavebeenmentionedinChapterFour.Forexample:Beijingfoodisheavyandspicy.Sichuanfoodischaracterizedbyastrongspicyhotflavor.Guangdongfoodislight.
    4.1.2.LiteralTranslationwithMedicine
    DisheswithmedicalortoniceffectsareakindoftraditionalfoodtherapydatingbacktoancientChina.Duetotheirgoodnutrition,therapeutic;andhealthyefficacy,theyarepopularamongawiderangeofpeople.Asaresult,renderinggoodandaccuratetranslationofthiskindofdishisaverysignificantandimportantjob.Suchdisheswithmedicalortoniceffectsarebestrenderedbybrieffactualtranslation+notes,thatis,literaltranslationwithnotes.ThedifficultyoftranslatingthesedishnamesliesinthefactthatahugemajorityofherbsinChinesetraditionalmedicinehavenocorrespondingEnglishnamesexceptfotremella(银耳[yiner]),Ginseng(人参[renshen]),Chrysanthemum(菊花[juhua])andafewothers.IftranslateddirectlyintotheirrespectivetermsinLatinsuchasAngelicasinenisisfor(当归[danggui])is,Gatrodiaelatafor(天麻[tianma]),itisbelievedthatmostcustomerswillnotbeabletocomprehendthem,letaloneknowtheirnutritionalandtoniceffects.Therefore
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    translationofthiskindshouldbesimplified,exceptforfamiliarandwell-understoodones.Mostofthemcanbejusttranslatedasherbs,withthetonicandtherapeuticeffectsinafewwordssupplementedafterthedishname.构祀银耳[youqiyiner]TremellaSoupwithChineseWolfberrySeeds冰糖燕窝[bingtangyanwo]SteamedEdibleBirdsNestwithRockSugar银杏鸡丁[yinxingjiding]SauteedDicedChickenwithGinkgoes天麻炖山鸡[tianmadunshanji]StewedPheasantwithHerbs杜仲腰花[duzhongyaohua]FriedPigKidneywithHerbsTremella,birdnestandginkgoareallwell-knowngreattonicandtherapeuticfoodtopeoplefromhomeandabroad,sotheycanbetranslatedintoEnglishdirectlywhileEucommiaulmoidesOliver(杜仲[duzhong])andGatrodiaelata(天麻[tianma]),thetraditionalChinesemedicinesareunfamiliartomostwesternpeople.Insuchcases,theyarejustrenderedintoherbsinsteadoftheirrealLatinnames.
    4.1.3LiteralTranslationwithExplanatoryPhrase
    Owingtotheuniquenessofeveryculture,forthoseChinesemenusthathavecertainculturalconnotationstothem,itwouldbehardtouseliteraltranslationorliteraltranslationplusanotetomakethetitlesproperlyunderstoodbytheTLviewers.So,astothedishescloselyrelatedtoChinesetradition,believeallusionorlegend,thereisnootherchoicethenforthetranslatorstoaddtheexplanatoryphraseinthetranslationprocess.Underthiskindofcircumstances,notionstypicalofforeignculturearenotgiven;instead,thenamesappearwithtypicalChineseimagesormainideaswouldbeanalyzed.全家福[quanjiafu]HappinesstotheWholeFamily:Stewedassortedpork,mixedwithseacucumber,squid,chicken,duck,fishball,shrimp,blackmushroomsandfungusetc.老少平安[laoshaopingan]TheWholeFamilyisWell:Steamedbeancurdwithmincedfish龙凤配[longfengpei]Dragon&;Phoenix:Twoseparatedishescharacterizethisdistinctiveplate.Ononeside,lobstermeatinSichuanchilisauce,whichisvery
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    inviting;ontheother,aspecialhousechicken,whichneverfailsindelightingtastebuds.佛跳墙[fotiaoqiang]TheBuddhaJumpedtheWallforLuringbyItsSmell:Assortedmeatandvegetablescookedinembers过桥米线[guoqiaomixian]Crossing-the-BridgeRiceNoodle:Adishcreatedbyaverycaringandattentivewifewhohadtocrossabridgeeverydaytodeliverfoodtoherhusband.Ashavebeenmentionedabove,Chinesepeopleliketoembodytheirwishforhappinessaswellasunity,etc.inthedishnames.Andalso,theallusionorlegendsarecontainedinthedishnames.Inthissituation,wecantranslatetheirdenotationsaccordingtotheChinesetokeepthenationalculturalfeatures,andthenoffersomeexplanationsabouttheirconnotations.
    4.1.4ZeroTranslationorZeroTranslationwithNotes
    Zerotranslationisnotonlyatranslationstrategyforovercomingtheunbridgeabledifferencesbetweenlanguages,butameansofsafeguardingthegeneralvalidityoftranslatabilityasthetheoreticalcornerstoneoftranslationaswell.InChinesemenutranslation,zerotranslationcorrespondstotransliteration.ThismethodiscloselyrelatedwiththetranslatabilityofChinesedishes.Asexplained,zerotranslationcanconveythesourceculturemoreaccurately;ofcoursetheuseofthismethodshouldbebuiltonthebasisofcomprehension,otherwiseitwillleadtothefailureofcommunication.InChinesemenutranslation,particularlyinthetranslationofChinesefoodnames,therearereallysomethings,thoughnotsomany,uniquetoChineselanguageandculture.Itisverymuchdifficultorevenimpossibleforusttranslatetheseelementsaccuratelyintoanotherlanguage.Alsomoreandmoreoreignershavecometounderstandtheseelementsviaculturalexchange.Asaresult,thezerotranslationmethodcan.beusedonacase-to-casebasis.ThisisnotonlyawaytosolvetheproblemoftranslatabilitybutalsoamethodtoexportChinesecultureabroad.SomeofthesezerotranslationshaveevenbeenabsorbedintocertainEnglishdictionaries,ashavebeenmentioned.
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    烧卖[shaomai]SuiMai白菜[baicai]Pakchai炒面[chaomian]ChowMein汤圆[tangyuan]TangYuan馄饨[huntun]WonTonHowever,consideringtherearestillmanyforeignnewcomereaterswhomayknownothingabouttheseelements,thistypeoftranslationcanbesupplementedbyrelevantnotes.Forinstance:油条[youtiao]Youtiao(Deep-friedDoughStick)麻花[mahua]Mahua(Deep-friedDoughTwist)包子[baozi]Baozi(StuffedBun)小笼包[xiaolongbao]XiaoLongBao(SteamedStuffedBunbySmallBambooFoodSteamer)馒头[mantou]Mantou(SteamedBread)锅贴[quotie]Guotie(PotStickers)木须肉[muxurou]MooShuPork(FriedPorkwithScrambledEggsandFungus)Thesedishnamesarealltranslatedbytransliteration.TheymainlyentailthetransferenceofsoundsfromtheChinesephonologicalsystemtotheEnglishone.Thiskindofsimplifiedmethodistheeasiestandmosteffort-saving.ButastothoseforeignerswhoarenotfamiliarwithChinesedishes,theserenditionsmaypossiblymakenosense.IftheyonlyfindtheseChinesespellinginthemenu,theywillsurelyfeelconfoundedandconfused.Sotherearesomesupplementedwordsintheparenthesestoeasepeople'sconfusion.
    4.2ApplicationofDomestication
    Sometimesdomesticationisindispensableintranslation.Ifforeignizationwillbringaboutmisinterpretationofthecommunicativeinformation,domesticationshouldbeemployedsoastoguaranteethecomprehensionoftheconnotativemeaningoftheST.Somemenuscontainsomeculturalimageswithstrongculturalconnotationsandtheseconnotationscan
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    hardlybeunderstoodifthetranslator,triestoretaintheforeignflavors.Inthiscase,ifthetranslatorinsistsonforeignization,itwillnotonlyfailtotransmittheSLculturetotheTLbutalsofailtoachievethecommunicationeffects.Therefore,domesticationshouldbeemployedtoachievecommunication.Domesticationcanbeusedinthefollowingcategorycalledfreetranslation.Freetranslationisoneofthetwomostwidely-usedtranslationmethods.Manypeoplefavorfreetranslation,becauseitfocusesonthesenseinsteadofthewords.WhenChineseistranslatedintoEnglish,freetranslationtriestogiveuptheliteraryChineseimageandseektheequivalentorsimilarEnglishliteraryimage.IftherearelanguagestylesorliteraryimageswhichexistonlyinChineseculture,thenthetranslationmusttrytoexplainthesestylesorimagesfromtheEnglishcultureperspective.Correspondingly,theremustbesomeculturaldifferencesoruniqueexpressionsinChineselanguagethatcannotbesoeasilyunderstoodbyforeignreadersinthepracticeofmenutranslation.Undersuchcircumstances,literaltranslationwithorwithoutexplanationmaynotbesufficient.Inthesecases,themeaningofChinesedishnamesmustbeexplainedfromtheperspectiveofEnglishculture,i.e.usingthefreetranslationmethod.
    4.2.1FreeTranslationwithNumber
    Ashavebeendiscussedinthepreviouschapter,thereareoftennumbersinchinesedishnames,fromonetoten,evenhundredsandthousands.Whetherthenumberinthedishnamesstandforexactquantityorcontaincomeculturalmeanings,theyshouldbeparaphrased.Forexample,“三鲜[sanxian]"refertofish,shrimpandporkinChinesedishes.Butmanypeoplethinkitshouldbeas"ThreeDelicacies",whichisimproper,intheauthor'sopinionsaswesternersmaynotknowwhatthesethreedelicaciesare.Inthiscase,itisbettertotranslatetherealingredients.炒双冬[chaoshuangdong]Stir-FriedBambooShootsandBlackMushroom三鲜汤[sanxiantang]SoupwithFish,ShrimpandPorkBalls三丝鱼翅[sansiyuchi]BraisedShark'sFinSoupwithShreddedAbalone,Hamand
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    Mushroom一品官燕[yipinguanyan]SteamedBird'sNestsinSupremeSoup五香牛肉[wuxiangniurou]SpicedBeefThereisaveryfamousChinesedishcalled炒双冬[chaoshuangdong].Thenwhatis双冬[shuangdong]Eventhecommonnon-professionalChinesepeoplecannotunderstandit,letaloneforeigners.Actually,双冬[shuangdong]referstoblackmushroomsandbambooshoots,so炒双冬[chaoshuangdong]canbetranslatedintoFriedSauteedMushroomsandBambooShoots.三丝[sansi]herein“三丝鱼翅”[sansiyuchi]areshreddedabalone,hamandmushroom,soitcanberenderedintoBraisedShark'sFinSoupwithShreddedAbalone,HamandMushroom.In“一品官燕”[yipinguanyan]and“五香牛肉”[wuxiangniurou],thesetwonumbersarenotrepresentingoneorfiveingredientsrespectively,sowejustparaphrasethemtoknowtheirmeanings.
    4.2.2FreetranslationwithFigurativeNames
    Freetranslationtriestoovercometheirrationalityoflanguagesandobstructionofculturesinamechanicalwayonly.Itreasonsandfollows:evenifaSLwordcannotfindacorrespondingwordintheTL,thecoreoftheSLwordmaybepenetratedbyaddingdefinitions,bothrestrictiveandextensive.Besidesthecolorandtaste,Chinesedishesalsopayalotofattentiontopresentation.Peopleliketousefigureofspeechtodescribedishesinordertocreatevividimage.Asamatteroffact,manyChinesedishesarefigurativewithspecialfeatures,impliedmeaningsandbackgrounds.Namesofthesedishesoftensoundbeautifulandpropitioussothatthedishesbecomemoreattractiveanddinersarehappier.Astheingredients,cookingmethodsandstylessuchascolor,taste,aromaandformarenotdepictedinthedishnamesofthistype,customersmaybegreatlybaffledbythesemenustranslatedliterally.Intranslatingthiskindofdishnames,adirectliteraltranslationmaypossiblysucceedinrenderingthecontentswithlimitedprecision,butittotallyabandonstheimpressionconveyedintheoriginal.Themosttypicalexamplesare霸王别姬[bawang
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    bieji](TheKingSayingGood-byetoHisBeauty),凤凰投林[fenghuangtoulin](PhoenixFlyingintotheWoods)andsoon.AllthesethingscharacterizetheChineseculture;butliteraltranslationwillleadtheforeigneatersnowhere.AccordingtoLiuZhongde,freetranslationisasupplementarymeanstoconveymainlythemeaningandspiritoftheoriginalwithouttryingtoreproduceitssentencepatternsorfiguresofspeech.Asfreetranslationmeanstokeepthemeaningoftheoriginaltext,customerscanbothknowthedishesandunderstandtheirsymbolicmeaningandthemetaphorswell.Therefore,inthesecasesfreetranslationtakespriorityoverliteraltranslationwhileliteraltranslationcansometimesalsobeusedasasupplement,followingtheparaphrasedtranslationinbrackets.雪积银钟[xuejiyinzhong]StewedMushroomswithWhiteFungus(WhiteSnowonSilverClock)游龙戏凤[youlongxifeng]Stir-friedPrawnsandChicken(TheDragonTeasedbytheBeautifulPhoenix)霸王别姬[bawangbieji]BroiledChickenCutletswithTurtle(TheKingSayingGood-byetoHisBeauty)凤凰投林[fenghuangtoulin]Stir-friedShreddedChickenwithChineseChives(PhoenixFlingintotheWoods)蚂蚁上树[mayishangshu]SauteedBeanVermicelliwithSpicyMeat(AntsClimbTree)白雪映红梅baixueyinghongmei]SteamedPattiesofCrabmeatandMincedShrimpwithCrabRoeonTop(RedPlumsReflectedWhiteSnow)“雪积银钟”[xuejiyinzhong],literallytranslated,shouldbewhitesnowonsilverclock,heresnowcomparestowhitefungusandsilverclocktomushroom,soitisnamed“stewedmushroomswithwhitefungus”actually.In“游龙戏凤”[youlongxifeng],ie“龙”and“凤”areprawnandchickenrespectively.“别”[bie]and“姬”[ji]in“霸王别姬”[bawang.bieji]havethesimilarpronunciationof”鳖”[bie](turtle)and“鸡”[ji](chicken)inChinese.That'swhythedishnameisrenderedinto“BroiledChickenCutletswithTurtle”.“凤凰投林”[fenghuangtoulin]istranslatedinto“Stir-friedShreddedChickenwithChineseChives”aschivesarelikewoods(林[lin])andthechickenislikephoenix(凤凰[fenghuang]).Similarly,ants(蚂蚁[ma
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    yi])andtree(树[shu])referstomeatandbeanvermicelli.Ifthesemenusarealltranslatedwithonlythoseinthebrackets,theculturaltermsarewellpreserved,butmisinterpretationamongthetargetreaderswillbeledto.Therefore,suchdishnamesshouldbetranslateddomestically.
    4.2.3CulturalSubstitution
    InordertoconveytheinformationofChinesemenusmoresimplyandmoreeffectively,wemayadoptthemethodofculturalsubstitutiontotranslatethedishnames.Thenationalcharacteristicsofthedishescan'tbewhollykept,butculturaldifferencescanbelessenedandtherenditionsaremoreacceptableifthedishnamesarerenderedtothosetheforeignpeoplearefamiliarwith.八宝饭[babaofan]EightTreasureRicePudding烤排骨[kaopaigu]BarbecuedSpareRibs鸡肉串[jirouchuan]TeriyakiChickenStick盖浇面[gaijiaomian]Chinese-styleSpaghetti饺子[jiaozi]Chinese-styleRavioli锅贴[guotie]PotStickersPuddingandbarbecuearerathercommonabroad,sowetranslate“八宝饭”[babaofan]and“烤排骨”[kaopaigu]intoEightTreasureRicePuddingandBarbecuedSpareRibsrespectivelyratherthan“EightTreasureRice”and"RoastSpareRibs".HereteriyakiisawordborrowedfromJapanese,meaning“roast”,whichiswidelyusedinChineserestaurantsinAmerica.Besides,spaghettiandravioliarefromItalian.Theirmeaningsandeatingwaysaresimilarto“面”[mian](noodle)and饺子[jiaozi](dumpling)inChina,whichareknownwelltotheforeignpeople.PotStickersisacommonandhumorouswaytoexpress“锅贴[guotie]”,andismuchbetterthantheusualrenditionofpan-frieddumplings.
    4.3CombinationofForeignizationandDomestication
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    SomeChinesemenusarecomposedoftwoparts,onebeingfigurativeandtheotherbeingfactual.ItwillbehardfortheTLreaderstounderstandiftheyaretranslatedinforeignizingstrategy.Asbasicallytheingredientsandcookingmethodscanbeknownandascertained,acombinationofforeignizationanddomesticationwillbeveryhelpfultosolvethisproblem.Ononehand,domesticationhelpsthetargetreaderstounderstandthesourcetext;ontheotherhand,foreignizationisusedtoremaintheoriginalculturalfeaturesandtotransferforeignelements.Intranslatingthesemenus,acombinationofbothforeignizationanddomesticationisofnecessity.Theusualmethodistometaphrasethefactualpartandparaphrasethefigurativepartthenputthemtogether.Examples:翡翠虾仁[feicuixiaren]Stir-friedShrimpwithPeas芙蓉鸡片[furonqjipian]FriedChickenSliceswithEggWhites迷你珍珠鸡[minizhenzhuji]SteamedChickenwithGlutinousRice蒜香琵琶豆腐[suanxangpipadoufu]FriedBeanCurdandMincedPrawnBraisedwithGarlic鱼香茄子[y6xidngqiezi]EggplantwithGarlicSauceThedish“翡翠虾仁”comprises“翡翠”(jade)and“虾仁”(shrimp),inwhich“翡翠”meanspeas.芙蓉meanseggwhitesratherthanlotusinthedishes.IfonetranslatesthesetwodishesliterallyintoStir-friedShrimpwithJadeandFriedChickenSliceswithLotus,itwillbeconfusing.SoitiswiththerenditionofotherChinesemenusofthisvariety.Actually,thebestthingtodointhiscaseistometaphasesthefactualpartandparaphrasesthefigurativepart.Asculture-loadedlinguisticsymbols,Chinesemenususuallyreflectalmosteverypartofthecultureofanation.Dishesofanationpresenttoreceptorsofanothernationauniqueappeal,which,toalargeextent,isdependentontheirpeculiarwaysofexpressing.Thesepeculiaritiescanusuallyshowtheculturalfeaturesofanation.Translatingmenusfromonelanguagetoanother,therefore,needstoachievetheeffectsofconveyingtheforeignflavorsofthesourcelanguageculture.Foreignizationservesbettertotheconveyanceofforeigncultures
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    intranslatingmenus.Ofcourse,anytranslatorshould.notgotoanextremeinadoptingforeignizationintranslation.Domesticationisanecessityintranslationwhentheculturaldisparitiesbetweentwolanguagesarehardlycomprehensibleiftheyarenottreateddomestically.However,thesimilaritiesbetweennationsareafterallmuchgreaterinnumberthanthedifferences.Therearemanymoremenusthatcanbetranslatedwithaforeignizingstrategythanthosewhichcallforadomesticatingstrategy.AndculturalimagesthatarebeyondtheunderstandingoftheTLreaderoccupyarelativelylowpercentage.Moreover,inanagewhendifferentculturesconfrontthetendencyofbeingglobalized,thetranslationofmenusshouldbemoreforeignizedsoastocontributetothepromotionofthecommunicationbetweendifferentcultures.Undersuchacondition,atranslatorshouldadoptforeignizationwhereverpossibleandemploydomesticationwhennecessary.Suchis"Foreignizationfirst,Domesticationsecond."strategy,whoseeasibilityhasbeenprovedinthischapterofmenutranslation.
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    5.Conclusion
    ThisthesishasalreadyanalyzedandexplainedforeignizationanddomesticationinChinesemenutranslationandabriefconclusionwillbemadeattheendofthethesisinordertogetaclearerandbetterunderstandingaboutthistopic.Also,thesignificanceandlimitationsofthestudyandsuggestionsforfurtherresearchareputorwardsothattranslatorswillsharpentheirtooloftranslation,toconstantlyimprovetheirskillandupgradetheirabilitytowardsperfectioninthisfield.
    5.1Summary
    Inthisnewcentury,Chinaispoisedtoopenwidertotheoutsideworldandfurtheritsreformsoastodisplayitsnewandcharmingimageandplayabiggerroleintheinternationalarena.WearegoingtoexportmoreofChinesetraditionalculturetoothercountiesandpromotethemutualexchangeandunderstandingbetweenChinaandtherestoftheworldandstrengthenthefriendshipbetweenChinesepeopleandotherpeoples.Inthisregard,translationconcerningfoodandcuisinecultureshouldersgreathonorandheavyresponsibility,andwillundoubtedlyplayanimportantpartandmakeitsduecontributiontotheoverallcausefriendshipbetweenChinaandothernations.Chinesemenusareofgreatsignificance.OfpromotingprosperousexchangeandSotheunderstandingandtranslationofThisthesismakesacomparativelydetailedstudyofthetwotranslationstrategiesofdomesticationandforeignizationinChinesemenutranslation.Domesticationandforeignizationcontainmoreprofoundmeaningswhichareratherthanlinguisticextensionofliteraltranslationandfreetranslation.Afterintroducingthetheoriesofdomesticationandforeignization,literaltranslationandfreetranslation,thisthesisexplorestheproblemsinexistingChinesemenutranslationandtheircorrespondingcauses.AsChinesemenusaretranslatable,thefeaturesandrichsourcesofChinesecuisineandthecharacteristicsofChinesedishnamesarestudied.Thenitputsforwardthatthesecharacteristicsdecidethetranslationprinciples:followingtheestablishedtranslations,semanticfaithfulness,culturalequivalence,functionalequivalenceandreaders'acceptability.Basedonthesecharacteristicsandtranslationprinciples,itisdiscoveredthatforeignizationinChinesemenutranslationkeepsmoreadvantagesthandomesticationtomeet
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    thespecialdemandsinthecurrentglobalizedenvironment.ThisthesisofferssomesuggestedapproachestoChinesemenutranslationbyapplyingforeignizationanddomesticationinit.ItclassifiestheconcreteusesofforeignizationinChinesemenutranslationintofourkinds.First,literaltranslationissuitableforfact-tellingdishnames.Second,literaltranslationwithannotationcanbeusedwhenthedishnamesareheavilyculturally-loaded.Forexample,somedishnamesarefromlegends,fablesandhistoricalevents,whicharehardtounderstandbytargetreadersiftheyarenotfamiliarwiththesestories.Third,whenthedishnamesarehardtounderstand,andtoomanyannotationsmayannoythereaders,literaltranslationwithexplanatoryphrasecanbeadopted.Fourth,zerotranslationorzerotranslationwithnotescanbeusedinthosedishnamesuniquetoChineselanguageandcultureandacceptabletotheforeignviaculturalexchange.Theapplicationofdomesticationisforsomedishnameswithnumbersandfigurativenames,eventhosethatcanbesubstituted.culturally.Besides,wemaycombinebothforeignizationanddomesticationintranslatingthoseChinesemenuscomposedoftwoparts,onebeingfigurativeandtheotherbeingfactual.Inshort,thisthesisadvocatesforeignizatingstrategyinChinesemenutranslation,whichaimsatreproducingasmuchaspossibletheforeignnessoftheoriginal,includingtheoriginalculturalandlinguisticfeatures.Itisbelievedthatforeignizationwillalsobenefitthetargetlanguageandcultureandpromotecommunicationsamongdifferentnations.Meanwhile,itdoesn'twanttobelittledomestication,whichisalsoanecessityinChinesemenutranslation.Afterarelativelydetailedstudy,thethesisintendstodrawmoreattentiontoforeignizingtranslationofChinesemenus,whichwillbecomeincreasinglyimportantandnecessaryintheenvironmentofglobalization.
    5.2SignificanceoftheStudy
    SuchstudiesofChinesemenutranslationarebelievedtohavegreatsignificanceforthedevelopmentoftranslation,especiallyforthestudyoftranslationofdishnames.ToknowhowtorenderChinesemenusintoEnglishwillgreatlybridgedifferentculturesandfacilitatecommunicationamongpeoplefromhomeandabroad.Asweallknow,the29thOlympicGameswillbeheldinBeijingin2008.HundredsofthousandsofforeignpeoplewillcometostayinBeijingforsometime.WearegoingtoexportmoreofChinesetraditionalculturetoothercountries.Inthisregard,translation
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    concerningfoodandcuisinecultureshouldersgreathonorandheavyresponsibility,andwillundoubtedlyplayanimportantpartinpromotingprosperousexchangeandfriendshipbetweenChinaandothernations.So,thecurrentconfusioninmenutranslationwithintheChineseserviceindustrymustberesolvedwithnodelay.Attheendof2006,theBeijingSpeaksForeignLanguagesProgramme(BSFLP)releasedadraftofC-ETranslationofMenusforBeijingRestaurantIndustryfordiscussion,andwouldliketopublishspecialeditionofguidebooksformenustranslationtobeusedintheserviceindustry.Thisarousedpeople’sattentionwidelyandlotsofthemgavetheiropinions.Doubtless,thesepublicationsshallbehighlystandardized,accurateandauthoritative.Therefore,basedonthethesis,theauthorwouldliketomaketwosuggestionstoBSFLP.First,mostEnglishtranslationsofChinesemenu,whethergoodorbad,haveexistedforquitesometime,andpeoplehaveacceptedandrecognizedthem.Therefore,weshouldtrytoavoidcreatingnewEnglishtranslationsbutchoosethemostappropriateonefromthealreadyexistingrendereddishnames,otherwisenewconfusionwillensue.Second,translationisnotsimplyforthepurposeofcommunication,butisalsoanimportantmeansofculturalexchange.Inthedraft,freetranslationiswidely-used,butthoseculturally-loadeddishnamesshouldemployliteraltranslationorzerotranslationasthesetranslationtypescanbettertransmittheChinesecuisineculture.Foreignizationstrategy,whichismainlyachievedbytheliteraltranslationorzerotranslationmethods,ismoreadvisableandisbecomingatrendinthecurrentEnglishtranslationofChinesemenu.
    5.3Limitations
    AlthoughthisstudyhasdiscussedsomefindingsaboutChinesemenutranslation,itisstillbelievedtobetentativeandunsophisticatedandsomelimitationsshouldbepointedout.Ononehand,itisapitythatnotallthecharacteristicsofChinesedishnamesarediscussedanddiscoveredinthethesis.Ontheotherhand,becauseofthelimiteddurationandlimitedsamplesize,thecurrentresearchisfarfromcompleteness.ItwillbemoreauthentictostudyChinesedishnamesbyusingandanalyzingChinesemenusfromthecorpus,especiallythosefromtheChineserestaurantsinforeigncountries,whicharewellacceptedbytheforeign.
    5.4SuggestionsforFurtherResearch
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    ThisthesismainlydiscussestheEnglishtranslationofChinesemenu.Notonlydoesitanalyzetheexistingproblemsandtheircorrespondingcauses,butitalsosummarizessometranslationprinciplesandsuggestspracticaltranslationapproachestoChinesemenutranslation.However,inordertobetterdescribeanddiscoverthecharacteristicsoftheChinesedishnamesandtheirtranslation,alargecorpus,especiallymadeupoftheChinesemenusinlargerestaurantsinforeigncountries,isverynecessaryandmorecarefulworkneedstobecarriedout.Inaword,moreempiricalworkshouldbedoneinsteadofsomescientificallyunimportantoremptydiscussion.Therefore,studyonChinesemenutranslationisstillonthewayfromthestartingpoint.ThisthesisisonlyconcernedwiththeEnglishtranslationofChinesemenu.TheChinesetranslationofEnglishmenu,however,whichisanotherimportantsideofthemenuquestion,shouldalsonotbeneglected.Ontheonehand,theChinesefoodculturehasbeenexportedbymeansoftranslation;ChinesecuisinehasbeenandcontinuestobeinfluencedbyWesternfoodculture.OnecanthusapproachtheChinesetranslationofWesternmenuinasimilarway:beginningwith,analyzingtheexistingChinesetranslationandfindingtheproblemsaswellastheircauses;next,summarizingpracticaltranslationmethodsandprovidingananalysis;finally,analyzingtheexistingtranslationsfromadiachronicperspective.ThetranslationofChinesemenus,asabroadsubject,requiresmoreandmorecontributiveresearchesfromdifferentperspectives.
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    Bibliography
    Baker,M.(1998).EncyclopediaofTranslationStudies[M].LondonandNewYork:RoutledgeBaker,M.(2000).InOtherWords:ACoursebookonTranslation.Beijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress.P141一144Bassnett,S.&;Trivedi,H.(1999).Post-colonialTranslation,TheoryandPractice.London:Routledge.CatfordJ.C.(1965).ALinguisticTheoryofTranslation.Oxford:UniversityPress.EdwardJ.S.(1996).CulinaryArtsandSciences:GlobalandNationalPerspectives.ComputationalMechanicsPublicationFoodandDrinkinChina:AVisitor'sGuide.NewWorldPress.1996Gerard.M.(1997).RandomHouseWebster'sDictionaryofAmericanEnglish.NewYork:RandomHouse,Inc.Gray,A.andDella,S.(1997).LongmanDictionaryofAmericanEnglish.Beijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress.Holmes,J.C.(1988).Translated:PapersonLiteraryTranslationandTranslationStudies.Amsterdam:Dodopi.Horby,A.S.(2002).OxfordAdvancedLearner'sEnglish-ChineseDictionary.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPressKramsch,C.(1998).LanguageandCulture.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.,丁一编.中华菜肴词典[M].北京:知识出版社,2004.董莉.从“源语文化”看中式菜肴的翻译.湖南商学报.2002,范仲英.实用翻译教程[M],北京:外语教学与研究出版社.1994.冯庆华.实用翻译教程[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1995.高健.我们在翻译上的分歧何在口.外国语.1994,葛正明.荷兰专家谈饭店和菜单的译名,中国翻译。1995郭建中.《文化与翻译》,中国对外翻译出版公司,北京,1999,黄海翔.中餐菜单英译浅谈[[J],中国科技翻译,1999,何高大.实用英汉汉英口译技巧[M],长沙:中南工业大学出版社,1997精选中菜食谱[M],WanLIBookCo.,Ltd.,FoodParadisePublishingCo.黎力.中西菜谱及饮食文化交流中的中英文翻译.外交硕士论文.2001.
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