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    本科生毕业设计(论文
    摘要
    英语长句指词语多、结构复杂、形体较长的简单句或分句多、层次结构关系复杂的复杂句。在英译汉的翻译中,长句的翻译历来是重点或难点之一。主要体现在英语长句中主要成分往往带有很多修饰语,错综复杂、细腻入微,这就需要翻译者具备一定的语言功力和翻译技巧。此外,英汉两种语言存在着较大的区别:英语是拼音文字,而汉语属于象形文字,这就要求翻译者在英译汉过程中应做出必要的调整以符合汉语表达习惯。如:调整语序、转变句子结构、转换词性、词义等。因此,本文将从长句的定义、主要特点、分析方法和翻译技巧等方面对英语长句的汉译问题做一个全面的总结和论述,力图克服学生或翻译实践者对英译汉中长句翻译的畏难心理并解决他们在翻译实践中遇到的具体问题。关键词:英语长句;修饰语;分析;技巧和方法
    I
    本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Abstract
    ThelongEnglishsentencereferstothewordy,lengthy,complicatedsimplesentencesorcompoundsentences.SointhetranslationfromEnglishtoChinese,thetranslationoflengthysentenceshasalwaysbeenoneofthefocalpointsorthedifficultpointsfortranslators.ItmainlyembodiesonthepointthattherearealwaysmanyinvolvedanddelicatemodifiersintheessentialcomponentsofalongEnglishsentence,whichchallengesthetranslator’slinguisticqualityandtranslatingskills.Moreover,therearegreatdifferencesbetweenEnglishandChinese:EnglishbelongstothelanguageofPinyin,whileChinesebelongstothelanguageofglyph,whichrequiresthetranslatortomakesomenecessaryadjustmentsinordertoaccordwiththenormsofChineseexpression,suchasadjustingthesentenceorder,changingsentencestructure,convertingthepartofspeechandthemeaningofthewordsandsoon.Sothisthesisdwellsonanalyzingandsummarizingthedefinition,features,meansofanalysisandtranslationtechniquesofthelengthyEnglishsentences,tryingtohelpthestudentsandtranslatorsconquerthefearofdifficultyandsolvetheconcreteproblemsintheirtranslationpractice.Keywords:longEnglishsentence;modifiers;analysis;skillsandmethods
    II
    本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Preface
    Thisthesisisabachelor’sthesis,whichisaboutthetranslationofthelengthyEnglishsentencesintoChinese.Thepresentthesisconsistsofthreeparts.PartonemainlydiscussesthecomprehensionoflongEnglishsentences,especiallythepositionofmodifiers.ParttwoattemptstocompareChinesewithEnglishandanalyzetheirrespectivesyntaxsoastohighlightthedifficultiesintransferringtheEnglishsentencesintoChinese.Thiscomparisonlaysagoodstartinggroundforthediscussionthatmainlydealswithnecessityofadaptationandgeneralpracticeofadaptation.Partthree,thebulkofthethesis,discussesthefourkindsofmethodsinEnglish-Chinesetranslation.InthetranslationfromEnglishtoChinese,thetranslationofthelengthysentenceshasalwaysbeenoneofthefocalpointsorthedifficultpointsfortranslators,sothisthesisaimstoanalyzeandsummarizethedefinition,features,meansofanalysisandtranslationtechniquesofthelengthyEnglishsentences,tryingtohelpthestudentsandtranslatorsconquerthefearofdifficultyandsolvetheconcreteproblemsintheirgeneralpracticesofEnglish-Chinesetranslation.Thereareagreatnumberofpeopletowhomthisthesisowesagreatdeal.Firstofall,IwouldliketoextendmyheartfeltthankstoJinYinghao,myacademicsupervisor.Meanwhile,Iexpressmymanythankstotheteacherswhohaveinstructedmeduringmyuniversitystudy.Luckily,Ihavehadtheopportunitytostudyundertheirsupervision.
    III
    本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Contents
    Chapter1Introduction...................................................................................................1Chapter2ComprehensionoflongEnglishsentences..................................................22.1DefinitionoflongEnglishsentences..................................................................22.2FeaturesoflongEnglishsentences.....................................................................22.3Thepositionofmodifiers....................................................................................3Chapter3LinguistictransferoflongEnglishsentences.............................................53.1ThedifferencesbetweenEnglishandChinese...................................................53.2Necessityofadjustments....................................................................................83.3Generalpracticesofadjustments........................................................................9Chapter4MethodsofEnglish-Chinesetranslation...................................................114.1AnalysisoflongEnglishsentences..................................................................114.2SkillsandmethodsofEnglish-Chinesetranslation..........................................12Conclusion.....................................................................................................................17References......................................................................................................................18Acknowledgements.......................................................................................................19
    IV
    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Chapter1Introduction
    DuetotheintrinsicdifferencesbetweenEnglishandChinese,thelongEnglishsentencemoreoftenthannotposesaproblemforEnglish-Chinesetranslation.HowtotranslatelongEnglishsentenceshasbecomeaclassictopicintranslationstudies.Inthelightofthisproblem,thisthesiswilldiscussthetranslationoflongEnglishsentences,whichIhopecanbehelpfultothetranslators.Thepresentthesisconsistsofthreeparts.PartonemainlydiscussesthecomprehensionoflongEnglishsentences,especiallythepositionofmodifiers.ParttwoattemptstocompareChinesewithEnglishandanalyzetheirrespectivesyntaxsoastohighlightthedifficultiesintransferringtheEnglishsentencesintoChinese.Thiscomparisonlaysagoodstartinggroundforthediscussionthatmainlydealswithnecessityofadaptationandgeneralpracticeofadaptation.Partthree,thebulkofthethesis,discussesthefourkindsofmethodsinEnglish-Chinesetranslation.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Chapter2ComprehensionoflongEnglishsentences
    2.1DefinitionoflongEnglishsentences
    AtypicallongEnglishsentencehasafiniteverbasthecore,surroundedbyrelativesandconjunctionsthatorganizephrasesandclausesatdifferentlevels.Moreoftenthannot,itsmainclausecontainssomeclauses,whichcanbefurtherembedded.ThefollowingexamplesufficestoshowthefeaturesoflongEnglishsentencesmentionedabove:Example:They(thepoor)arethefirsttoexperiencetechnologicalprogressasacursewhichdestroystheoldmusclepowerjobsthatpreviousgenerationusesasameanstofighttheirwayoutofpoverty.Theyarethefirst...(mainclause)A.toexperience…curse(infinitiveclausemodifyingfirst)B.whichdestroysjobs(relativeclausemodifyingprogress)C.thatpreviousgenerationsjobs(relativeclausemodifyingmeans)D.tofight...(infinitiveclausemodifyingmeans)Theexampleshowsthattheembeddedclausesgreatlylengthenthesentence.Alongsentencecanbeseenasaclauseenhanced,enlargedorexpanded.AlthoughmodernEnglishdemonstratesatendencyoftheshorteningofsentencelength,suchcomplexsentenceswithembeddedclausesarestillacommonthing.Onthecontrary,alongsentencewithembeddedclausesisnowheretobefoundinChinese.
    2.2FeaturesoflongEnglishsentences
    Firstly,therearemorephrases.Inthelongsentencesthereareprepositionalphrases,adjectivephrases,infinitivephrases,gerundphraseorparticipialphrase:sometimessomewordinthephraseisdecoratedbyotherphrases,thusformsamulticolorstructureinwhichaphrasecontainsotherphrases.Secondly,therearemorecoordinateingredients.Addingcoordinatesubject,predicate,object,attribute,andadverbial
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    modifiers,thesecompoundingredients(suchas:thesubject,theobject)aresometimesnarratedbythedecoratingwordsandexpressionsorthesubordinateclauses,whichlengthenthesentenceandmakeitmoredifficult.Thirdly,therearemoreadditiveingredients.Thereareparentheticalremarks,appositiveremarksortheindependentcomponents,superaddedotheringredients,thusthepunctuationmarks,especiallythecomma“,”increases,itiscommonthattherearefiveormorecommasinasentence.Fourthly,therearemorecompoundsentences.Itisaneffectivewaytoexpandasentencebyincreasingcompoundsentences.Fifthly,therearemoresubordinateclauses.Itisanimportantmethodtoexpandasentencebyincreasingsubordinateclauses.Sometimesweexpandsomecertainsubordinateclausestocomposealongsentence;Sometimeseventhecompoundsentenceandthehostsubordinateclauseinterlockinthesameplaceorasubordinateclauseincludesanothersubordinateclause,thuscomposingamulticolorsubordinateclause.
    2.3Thepositionofmodifiers
    TherearealwaysmanymodifiersintheessentialcomponentofalongEnglishsentence,forexample,thenounthatservesasasubjectoranobjectoftenhasoneorsomeadjectives,prepositionalphrases,participialphasesaswellastheattributiveclauses,whichmodifyandlimitthisnoun.Anotherexampleisaverbthatservesasapredicateoftenhasoneorseveraladverbs,participialphases,prepositionalphrasesaswellasadverbialsubordinateclauses,whichdecoratethisverb.Whentranslatingalengthysentencewithacomplexstructure,wehavetodifferentiatetheessentialcomponentandthemodifierfirst,andwecanmarktheessentialcomponentsandthemodifiersintheoriginalEnglishsentenceinordertomakethestructureofthesentenceclearerataglance,andreorganizesthemaininformationofthissentenceinthebrains.Obviously,modifierisakeypointintheprocessoftranslation;nextwediscussthepositionofmodifiers.WordorderinEnglishismoreflexiblethaninChinese.InEnglish,aslongasthearticleconcordisrealized,thewordorderbecomesrelativelyflexible.However,sincetheChineselanguagedoesnotrequirethissortofgrammaticalconcord,thewordordertendstobemorefixed.Thepositionofmodifiersreflectstheflexibilityofwordorderinbothlanguages.InEnglish,modifierscanbeputbeforeoraftertheheadwordandtherearenolimitstothelengthorthenumberofmodifiersoneheadwordcanbeloadedwith.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    InChinese,attributivemodifiersaremostlyputbeforeratherthanaftertheheadwordandonesentencecanonlybeloadedwithacertainnumberofmodifiers.Englishisprincipallyright-branchingasopposedtoChinese,whichisprincipallyleft-branching.Englishsentencesaremarkedbytheirclosedbeginningsandopenendings.Onthecontrary,thebeginningsofChinesesentencesareopentosyntacticelementswhiletheirendingsareclosed.TheconventionofopenbeginninginChineseencouragestheoccurrenceofpre-modification.Forexample,ifthebasicsentenceis“那个人是王芳”,anditcanbeexpandedinthedirectionfromrighttoleftinthisway:和小明说话的那个人是王芳。站在那边和小明说话的那个人是王芳。你看到的站在那边和小明说话的那个人是王芳。今天你看到的站在那边和小明说话的那个人是王芳。Onthecontrary,Englishsentencesusuallybranchattheendofitsmainclause.Openendingencouragesthepositioningofmodifiersafterthemodifiedandthusthesentenceexpansionmodelshowsaright-branchingtendency.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Chapter3LinguistictransferoflongEnglishsentences
    3.1ThedifferencesbetweenEnglishandChinese
    Accordingtothelanguagefamily,EnglishbelongstothelanguageofPinyin,whileChinesebelongstothelanguageofglyph.Next,wetalkaboutthedifferencesbetweenEnglishandChinese.Firstly,Englishemphasizesstructure,whileChinesestressessemantics.InthetranslationworkfromEnglishtoChinese,wecanseethatlongEnglishsentenceisalwayscomplex,becausethroughthearrangementofthestructurewecanexpressextensivemeaninginasentence.Firstwehavetoseeseveralexamples:(1)Itappliesequallytotraditionalhistorianswhoviewhistoryasonlytheexternalandinternalcriticismofsources,andtosocialsciencehistorians,whoequatetheiractivitywithspecifictechniques.Thissentence,whichhasasmanyasthirtywords,isatypicalcomplexsentence.Sayingfromthecontent,itmainlyprovidestheinformationfromtwoaspects:oneis“Itappliesto...historians”,theotheristheconcretedetailsofhistorians;Sayingfromthestructure,itisaprincipalclausewithtwosubordinateclausesguidedbywhom.Althoughthestructureiscomplexandtheinformationcontentislarge,thisspeechinEnglishiscertainlynotdisorganized,becausethesentencestructureislinkedtogether,andthesemanticsisclear:theattributeclauseguidedbywhoisputbehindthenountomodifythisnoun,andthisexpressionformiscommonlyusedinEnglish,thatisthesemanticsofthetwosubordinateclausesisbothrelativelyindependentandisalsounitedtogetherasonebodywiththeprincipalclause.Ifthissentenceisalteredtoasentencelike:(2)Itappliesequallytotraditionalhistoriansandtosocialsciencehistorians.Traditionalhistorians(ortheformer)viewhistoryasonlytheexternalandinternalcriticismofsources.Socialsciencehistorians(orthelatter)equatetheiractivitywithspecifictechniques.Thesetwosentencesexpressacompletelysamemeaning,butthewayofexpressionseemsalittleplainandwordy,whichexplainsafactthatEnglishemphasizes
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    sentencestructureverymuch,andaproperarrangementofthesentencestructuremayachieveabetterexpressioneffect.AccordingtothenormsofChineseexpression,thesentenceisgenerallynotsuitabletobetoolong,andifthemodifiersareexcessivelymoreorlonger,itmaybelikeapresumptuousguestusurpsthehost’sholeandmakethesemanticsalittleambiguous.Let’shavealookatthemetaphaseofthissentence:它同样适用于将历史仅仅看作是对历史材料来源的内部的和外部的批评的传统历史学家,和把历史研究活动等同于具体研究方法的社会科学历史学家。Suchtranslationisveryfaithful,butactuallytheexpressiondoesnotaccordwiththenormsofChinese,whentranslatingthetranslatormakesgreatefforttotranslateandthereaderalsoneedsgreatefforttoread.Sowemakeanadjustmenttothissentencelike:它同样适用于传统历史学家和社会科学历史学家,传统历史学家(或前者)将历史仅仅看作是对历史材料来源的内部的和外部的批评,社会科学历史学家(或后者)把历史研究活动等同于具体的研究方法。Obviously,aftertheadjustment,thetranslationgivesusamuchclearerandsmootherfeeling.ItisverycoincidentthatitismuchcloserwiththestructureoftherewrittenEnglishsentence,andthisshowsthatChinesedoesnotneedacomplexstructureinordertoenhancetheexpressionlevel,wejusthavetomakegreateffortstomakethemeaningofthesentenceclearandcorrect,thuswemayhavemorefreedomsinthewayofexpression.Secondly,Englishhasmorelongsentences,whileChinesehasmoreshortones.BecauseEnglishemphasizesstructure,Chinesestressessemantics,Englishsentencesarealwaysalittlelonger,whileChinesesentencesareoftenshort.Thisaspecthasbeendisplayedveryclearly.Whenunderstandingthisdifferencefully,wecangetridofthefetteroftheoriginaltextnaturallyandstriveforcertaininitiative,thisisjustlikewhatQianZhongshusaid“getthemeaning,forgetthewords”.(得意忘言)Thirdly,Englishusuallyhasmorepassivesentences,whileChinesehasmoreactiveones.EverypersonwithjustalittlecharinesscandiscoverthatpeopleusepassivestructurefrequentlyinEnglish,butinChinesepeopleactuallydonotusethepassivestructureverymuch.Facingthiscontradiction,wecertainlycannottranslateeachpassivestructureintoChinesemechanically;wemustcarryonsuitableprocessingaccordingtothespecialdetails.Let’sseeanotherexample:(3)Anditisimaginedbymanythattheoperationsofthecommonmindcanbynomeansbecomparedwiththeseprocesses,andthattheyhavetoberequiredbyasortofspecialtraining.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Thissentencehasthreepassivestructures:isimagined...,…becompared…,…berequired…Behindthefirstpassivestructureisthesenderoftheaction,wecaneasilyturnsuchapassivestructureintoanactiveonebyputtingthesenderoftheactionahead.“Itisimaginedbymanythat…=manyimaginethat…”Therefore,itismucheasierforustotranslateas,“许多人认为……”Thisisthefirstsituationtochangeapassivesentenceintoanactiveone.Thesecondsituationis:wedonothavetomakeanymodificationofChineseandwecancompletesuchaconversion,thesecondpassivestructureofthissentencebelongstothiskindofsituation,“becomparedwith”canbetranslateddirectlyas“与……相比较”,because“与……被比较”inChineseisobviouslywrong.Thethirdkindofsituationneedstomakebigadjustmentsonthewholesentence.Thethirdpassivestructureinthesentencehasthepreposition“by”astheguidance,butitisobviouslyinvalidifwesimplyexchangethepositionofthesubjectandtheobject,thiskindofsituationisusuallycreatedbytheuseofwords,forexample,“Whatdoesthepronoun‘they’referto?”“Whatdoestheword‘required’inthesentencemean?”TosolvetheseproblemsweneedafurtherunderstandingofthedifferencesintheuseofwordsbetweenEnglishandChinese.Fourthly,Englishusespronounsfrequently,whileChinesehasafrequentuseofnouns.Englishoftenusesthepronouns,althoughChinesealsousesthepronoun,thefrequencyofuseisobviouslyinferiortoEnglish.Inordertoclarifytheaccuratemeaningofthesentence,wemustknowwhatthepronounreallyrefersto?Becausetheignoranceofthesubjectcanalsohaveaneffectonthedeterminationoftheverbandthemisunderstandingofthepronounmayeveninfluencethewholeversion.Thesepronounsplayanimportantrole,sowhentranslatingthesentenceintoChinesethepronounsmustbeconvertedintonouns.Whenencounteringthiskindofsituationwehavetoseekcluesinthearticle,andthenwecanexpressthesentenceaccurately.Nowlet’sseethethirdexamplementionedaboveagain.Anditisimaginedbymanythattheoperationsofthecommonmindcanbynomeansbecomparedwiththeseprocesses,andthattheyhavetoberequiredbyasortof普通人的思维活动根本无法和科学家的思维过程相比specialtraining.许多人认为:较,他们并认为这些(科学家的)思维过程必须经过某种专门训练才能掌握。Payattentiontothepronoun“they”whichistranslatedas“……思维过程”and“berequired”istranslatedas“掌握”,thepassivestructuredisappeared,andtheacceptationalsochangesalot,thenwecaneasilybethinkofanotherdifferenceoftheexpressionofEnglishandChinese.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Fifthly,Englishhasmoreexpandingmeaning,whileChinesehasmoreinferentialmeaning.Theword“require”appearsfrequentlyinEnglishsentences.Wehaveafeelingthatwehaveknownthisword,butweactuallydonotknowitsaccuratemeaning.Thereasonforthismaybecomplex,butwecangetsomeinspirationsfromtwoEnglishproverbs:thefirstoneis“Youknowawordbythecompanyitkeeps”(要知道一个词的意思就要看它周围是什么词);anotheroneis“Wordsdonothavemeaning,butpeoplehavemeaningforthem”(词本无义,义随人生)。Inotherwords,awordmayhaveacompletelynewmeaninginaspecificsituation.Seeingfromtheoriginalauthor,thisnewmeaningisfromtheoriginalword;whileseeingfromthetranslator,thisnewmeaningisfromreasoning.Sixthly,Englishismoreabstract,whileChineseismoreconcrete.Theso-calledabstractinfactreferstosomemethodsofexpression,whichmakespeopleuncertainaboutthemeaning.Themainpurposeoftranslationistomakepeopleunderstandthesentences,sosomeequivocalexpressionsshouldnotappearintheversion.Sayingfromthissignificance,Englishindeedhasmoreabstractcontent,whileChinesehasmoreconcretecontent.ConvertingtheabstractcontentintoconcretecontentneedsthefoundationofbasicskillsofbothEnglishandChinese,thereforewemustworkharder.
    3.2Necessityofadjustments
    Eugene.A.Nidaoncesaid,“Ifalllanguagesdifferinform(andthisistheessenceoftheirbeingdifferentlanguages),thenquitenaturallytheformsmustbealteredifoneistopreservethecontent.”(ShenYuping1999:744)Inhisopinion,“translatingmustaim,primarilyatreproducingthemessage.Todoanythingelseisessentiallyfalsetoone’staskasatranslator.Buttoreproducethemessageonemustmakeagoodmanygrammaticalandlexicaladjustments.”(Ibid2000:755)Althoughhistheoryhasevokedmanyoppositeopinions,onecannotdenythatthereissometruthinthem.SincemanyofthestructuralpatternsinChinesedifferfromthoseinEnglish,totransferthelongEnglishsentenceinevitablyinvolvesmakingadjustmentsaccordingtothenormsofChineseexpression.Foronething,ChineselackssomeofthecohesivetiesthatEnglishemploystoconstructalongsentence.Foranotherthing,EnglishsyntaxandChinesesyntaxmanifestdistinctfeatures.Batimoncepointedout,“theformofasourcetextmaybecharacteristicofSL”,conventionsbutsomuchatvariancewithTLnorms,thatrenderingmeformwillinevitablyobscurethe“message”or“sense”ofthetext.(Batim
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    2001:8)Takethefollowingsentenceforexample.Sincetherearenoready-madeformalcorrespondentsfortheembeddedinfinitiveclausesandrelativeclauses,adjustmentsareinevitable.Butthecruxoftheproblemliesinhowtomakeadjustments.Ifwerespecttheoriginalsurfacestructure,wemayrenderthesentencelikethis:他们(穷人)是首先体验到摧毁了以往的几代人作为摆脱贫困的手段的旧式体力的劳动技术进步之害的。Intheoriginalsentence,theinfinitivesandrelativepronounsclearlysignifytherelationshipbetweentheelementsinthesentence.ButtheChinesefunctionword“的”failstodoso.Moreover,theChinesenormsdonotallowsomanypre-modifiers.BytryingtouseChinesecounterpartforthepost-modifiersintheoriginalsentencethisrenditionturnsouttobeawkwardandconfusing.Ifwedelvebeneaththestructureoftheoriginalsentence,wemayfindthatthereisacause-effectrelationshipimpliedinit.Therefore,wecanrearrangethesentenceorderas:对于以往的几代人来说,旧式的体力劳动是一种摆脱贫困的手段,而技术的手段则摧毁了穷人赖以为生的体力劳动。因此,首先体验到技术进步之害的是穷人。(LiuMiqing1998:226)Althoughtheoriginalformisnotretained,thisrenditionrevealsbetterthelogicalrelationshipimpliedintheoriginalsentenceandsoundsmorenaturalandsmooth.Inthefollowingsection,wearegoingtoexplorehowtonaturalizethelongEnglishsentence.
    3.3Generalpracticesofadjustments
    InChinese,thesyntacticallyrelatedelementsandclausesmustbeallocatedinsomeorderthatisusuallyunmarked.Inotherwords,thewordsorgroupsofwordsthatarecloselyrelatedtoonetendtobejuxtaposedwithoutexplicitlexicalitemsspecifyingtheirrelationship.HerewewouldliketoclarifytheverysequenceinwhichthenativespeakersofChineseprefertoconstructtheirsentences.Chineseexpandedsentencesgenerallyfollowthepatternsbelow:CausebeforeeffectBackgroundbeforethemaineventEventthathashappenedearlierbeforethathashappenedlaterThelogicalrelationshipinaChinesesentenceisoftenself-explanatoryThesepatternsofChinesecanindicatethedirectionthewriter’sthoughtisabouttotake,makingiteasyforthereadertofollow.Ontheoccasionoftranslatinglong
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    sentencesfromEnglishtoChinese,reorderingisnodoubtthemostvalid.Whentheoriginalsentenceistoolongtobecompletelyre-expressedinnomorethanonesentenceinthetargetlanguage,thetechniqueofcuttingandsplittingoffisrecommended.Mr.LiuMiqing’sversionofsentenceonequotedintheabovesectionisjustatellingcase,whichisrearrangedinacause-before-effectsequence.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Chapter4MethodsofEnglish-Chinesetranslation
    4.1AnalysisoflongEnglishsentences
    Beforeatranslatordoestranslationwork,heorshemustfirstlearntoanalyzethestructureofthesentence.Nowwewillseetheprocessofhowtoanalyzealongsentence.Generallyspeaking,alongsentenceiscreatedbythefollowingthreeaspects:①modifiers②compoundingredients③complexstructurearrangements.Whenanalyzingalongsentence,wecanusethemethodsasfollowed:①findingoutthesubject,thepredicateandtheobjectoftheentiresentence,thengraspthesentencestructureonthewhole.②findingoutallpredicatestructures,non-predicateverbs,prepositionalphrasesandtheguidanceofsubordinateclause.③analyzingthesubordinateclauseandthefunctionofthephrases,forexample,whethertheclauseisasubjectsubordinateclause,objectsubordinateclause,predicativesubordinateclauseornot.④analyzingthemutualrelationshipsamongthewords,thephrasesandthesubordinateclauses,forexample,whichisthemodifiedantecedentintheattributiveclauseetc.⑤payingattentiontotheotheringredients,suchastheparentheticalremarksetc.⑥analyzingwhethertherearefixedwordgroupsorfixedmatchesornot.Examples:(1)Behavioristssuggestthatthechildwhoisraisedinanenvironmentwheretherearemanystimuli,whichdevelophisorhercapacityforappropriateresponses,willexperiencegreaterintellectualdevelopment.Analysis:Firstly,thesubjectofthissentenceis“behaviorists”,andthepredicateis“suggest”,theobjectisasubordinateclause.Therefore,thewholesentenceisastructurelike“Behavioristsuggeststhat-clause”.Secondly,therearefivepredicatestructuresaltogetherinthissentenceandtheirpredicateverbsare“suggest,israised,are,develop,experience”andsoon.Therelationshipamongthemis:thestructure“behavioristssuggestthat-clause”isthemainclause,“whoisraisedinanenvironment”isanattributiveclause,theantecedentis“child”;“wheretherearemanystimuli”isanattributiveclause,theantecedentis“environment”;“whichdevelophisorhercapacityforappropriateresponses”isanattributiveclause,itsantecedentis“stimuli”;intheobjectclauseof“suggestthat…”,thesubjectis“child”,thepredicateis“experience”,
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    theobjectis“development”.Aftertheanalysiswehavemadeabove,wenowhaveamoreintensiveunderstandingonthissentence,thenaccordingtothemethodsofEnglish-Chinesetranslationmentionedabove,wecantranslatethissentenceintoChineseas:行为主义者认为,如果儿童的成长环境里有许多刺激因素,这些因素又有利于其适当反应能力的发展,那么,儿童的智力就会发展到较高的水平。(2)Forafamilyoffour,forexample,itismoreconvenientaswellascheapertositcomfortablyathome,withalmostunlimitedentertainmentavailablethantogooutinsearchofamusementelsewhere.Analysis:Firstly,themainstructureis“itismore…todosomethingthantodosomethingelse”,whichisacomparativestructure;moreover,itisacomparebetweentwoinfinitivestructures.Secondly,therearethreepredicatestructuresaltogetherinthissentence,therelationshipamongthemis:“itismoreconvenientaswellascheaperto…”isthemainbody,but“it”isthemodalsubject,andtherealsubjectisthesecondpredicatestructure,thatis“tositcomfortablyathome”,whichiscomparedwiththethirdpredicatestructure“togooutinsearchofamusementelsewhere”.Thirdly,theheadofthesentence“forafamilyoffour”istheadverbialmodifier,whichshowsthecondition.Moreover,therearetwoprepositionalphrasestobeservedasparenthesis.Havingcompletedtheanalysisofthissentence,tosynthesizeallthetranslationmethodsmentionedabove,andthenaccordingtothenormsofChineseexpressionthissentencecanbetranslatedas:譬如,对于一个四口之家来说,舒舒服服地在家中看电视,就能看到几乎数不清的娱乐节目,这比到外面别的地方去消遣又便宜又方便。
    4.2SkillsandmethodsofEnglish-Chinesetranslation
    Englishisusedtoexpressmorecomplicatedconceptinalongsentence,whileChineseisdifferentfromthatofEnglish,itoftenusesseveralshortsentencestodoawell-arrangednarration.So,whiletranslatingfromEnglishtoChinese,weshouldpayspecialattentiontothedifferencesbetweenEnglishandChinese,wecandecomposethelongsentencesofEnglishandtranslatethemintoshortsentencesofChinese.InthetranslationoflongEnglishsentences,wegenerallytakethefollowingmethods:1.Ordermethod.WhenthenarrationarrangementsofthecontentoflongEnglishsentenceareconsistentwithChinesebasically,wecantranslatethesentenceintoChineseaccordingtotheorderofEnglishoriginaltext.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Examples:(1)Evenwhenweturnoffthebesidelampandarefastasleep,electricityisworkingforus,drivingourrefrigerators,heatingourwater,orkeepingourroomsair-conditioned.Analysis:Thissentenceismadeupofamainclause,threepresentparticiplesservedasincidentaladverbialmodifiersandatimeadverbialclause,whichisintheheadofthesentence.Therearesomemeaningsfromfiveaspects:①Evenwhenweturnoffthebesidelampandarefastasleep;②electricityisworkingforus;③drivingourrefrigerators;④heatingourwater;⑤orkeepingourroomsair-conditioned.ThelogisticrelationshipamongthemandtheorderofexpressiongoallthewaywithChinese,therefore,wecanuseordermethodtotranslatethesentenceintoChineseas:即使在我们关掉了床头灯深深地进入梦乡时,电仍在为我们工作;帮我们开动电冰箱,把水加热,或使室内空调机继续运转。(2)Butnowitisrealizedthatsuppliesofsomeofthemarelimited,anditisevenpossibletogiveareasonableestimateoftheir“expectationoflife”thetimeitwilltaketoexhaustallknownsourcesandreservesofthesematerials.Analysis:Themainstructureofthissentenceis“Itisrealizedthat…”,“it”isthemodalsubject,“that”guidesthesubjectclauseanditsparatacticstructure“itisevenpossibleto…”,inwhichtheinfinitivephrasesserveasthesubject,“thetime”istheappositionof“expectationoflife”,wecanfurtherexplainitsmeaning,butthesentencebehindtheword“time”isitsattributiveclause.Andthefivepredicatestructuresexpressthemeaningfromfouraspects:①butnowitisrealizedthat;②suppliesofsomeofthemarelimited;③itisevenpossibletogiveareasonableestimateoftheir“expectationoflife”;④thetimeitwilltaketoexhaustallknownsourcesandreservesofthesematerials.Accordingtothemethodsoftranslation,wecanmakeanadjustmenttothefourthone,thentheversioncanbe:可是现在人们意识到,其中有些矿物质的蕴藏量是有限的,人们甚至还可以比较合理的估计出这些矿物质“可望存在多少年”,也就是说,经过若干年后,这些矿物的全部已知矿源和储量将消耗殆尽。(3)Priortothetwentiethcentury,womeninnovelswerestereotypesoflackinganyfeaturesthatmadethemuniqueindividualsandwerealsosubjecttonumerousrestrictionsimposedbymale-dominatedculture.Aswetalkedaboutabove,wecantranslatethissentenceinto:在20世纪以前,小说中的妇女像都是一个模式。她们没有任何特点,因而无法成为具有个性的人;他们还要屈从于由男性主宰的文化传统强加给他们的种种束缚。
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    2.Reverseorder.SomelengthyEnglishsentenceshavedifferentnormsofexpressionfromChinese,evendifferentirely,andthenwehavetostartfromthebackoftheoriginaltexttotranslate.Examples:(1)Aluminumremainedunknownuntilthenineteenthcentury,becausenowhereinnatureisitfoundfree,owingtoitsalwaysbeingcombinedwithotherelements,mostcommonlywithoxygen,forwhichithasastrongaffinity.Analysis:Thissentenceismadeupofamainclause,tworeasonadverbialmodifiersandanattributiveclause,“Aluminumremainedunknownuntilthenineteenthcentury”isthemainclauseanditisalsothecentrepointofthewholesentence,therearefourpiecesofpredicatestructureinallwhichcontainsmeaningfromfiveaspects:①aluminumremainedunknownuntilthenineteenthcentury;②becausenowhereinnatureisitfoundfree;③owingtoitsalwaysbeingcombinedwithotherelements;④mostcommonlywithoxygen;⑤ithasastrongaffinity.AccordingtothenormsofChineseexpression,thereasonisalwayspriortotheresult,thuswecangoagainsttheorderoftheoriginaltextandtranslatethissentenceinto:铝总是跟其他元素结合在一起,最普遍的是跟氧有很强的亲和力,由于这个原因,在自然界找不到游离状态的铝。所以,铝直到19世纪才被人发现。(2)Itthereforebecomesmoreandmoreimportantthat,ifstudentsarenottowastetheiropportunities,therewillhavetobemuchmoredetailedinformationaboutcoursesandmoreadvice.Analysis:Thissentenceiscomposedofamainclause,anadverbialclauseforconditionandanobjectclause.“...becomesmoreandmoreimportant”isthemainclause,anditisalsothecenterpointofthewholesentence,thethreepiecesofpredicatestructurecontainthreeaspectsofmeanings:①...becomesmoreandmoreimportant;②ifstudentsarenottowastetheiropportunities;③therewillhavetobemuchmoredetailedinformationaboutcoursesandmoreadvice.InordertomaketheversioncongruouswiththenormsofChineseexpression,wealsoadoptthereverseorderandtranslatethissentenceinto:因此,如果要使学生充分利用他们(上大学)的机会,就得为他们提供大量关于课程的更为详尽的信息,作更多的指导。这个问题显得越来越重要了。(3)ItisprobablyeasierforteachersthanforstudentstoappreciatethereasonswhylearningEnglishseemstobecomeincreasinglydifficultoncethebasicstructuresandpatternsofthelanguagehavebeenunderstood.Thissentencecanbetranslatedinto:一旦了解英语的基本结构和句型,再往下
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    学似乎就越来越难了,这其中的原因,也许教师比学生更容易理解。3.Detachingsentences.SometimesthesubjectortheprincipalclausehasnocloserelationshipwiththemodifiersinthelongEnglishsentences.WhentranslatingwecanaccordwiththenormsofChinese—moreshortsentencesintoshortone,andnarrateseparately.Inordertomakethemeaningofthetextcoherent,sometimesweneedtoaddsomewords.Examples:(1)ThenumberoftheyoungpeopleintheUnitedStateswhocannotreadisincredibleaboutoneinfour.Analysis:ThesentencementionedaboveisarelativelyeasyoneinEnglish,butifwetranslateitinaccordancewiththesentencestructureoftheoriginaltext,thesentenceisprobablytranslatedas:没有阅读能力的美国青年人的数目令人难以相信约为1/4。Thus,theversionisextremelyinflowing,anditdoesnotaccordwiththenormsofChinese.Therefore,wecantranslatethissentenceas:大约1/4的美国青年人没有阅读能力,这简直令人难以置信。(2)Television,itisoftensaid,keepsoneinformedaboutcurrentevents,allowsonetofollowthelatestdevelopmentsinscienceandpolitics,andoffersanendlessseriesofprogrammerswhicharebothinstructiveandentertaining.Analysis:Inthislongsentence,thereisaparenthesis“itisoftensaid”,threepiecesofpredicatestructure,aswellasanattributiveclause.Seeingfromthestructure,thethreepiecesofpredicatestructurebelongtoonesentence,buttheyallhaveabsolutemeanings,therefore,whentranslatingwecanusethethirdmethod—detachingsentences,thenwecandetachthewholesentenceintoseveralshortonesaccordingtothenormsofChineseexpression.Thentheversioncanbe:人们常说,通过电视可以了解时事,掌握科学和政治的最新动态。从电视里还可以看到层出不穷、既有教育意义又有娱乐性的节目。(3)Alltheyhavetodoispressingabutton,andtheycanseeplays,films,operas,andshowsofeverykind,nottomentionpoliticaldiscussionsandthelatestexcitingfootballmatch.Theversionis:他们所必须做的只是按一下开关。开关一开,就可以看到电视剧、电影、歌剧,以及其他各种各样的文艺节目。至于政治问题的辩论、最近的激动人心的足球比赛更是不在话下。4.Integrationmethod.WehavetalkedaboutthreekindsofmethodstotranslatelengthyEnglishsentencesintoChinese,suchas:theordermethod,thereverseorderlawanddetachingsentences.Infact,whentranslatingwedonotuseonlyonekindof
    15
    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    method,buttointegrateallkindsofmethodstogether,whichhasbeenshowninthesentencesmentionedabove.Especiallyinthefollowingsituations,ifwejustuseoneofthemethodswecannotdothetranslationworkwell,soitneedsourcarefulanalysis.Inthelightofthepriorityoftime,orintermoflogicalorder,wecancarryonsynthesisprocessingonthewholesentence,andthenwecantranslatetheEnglishoriginaltextintosmoothandfaithfulChinesesentences.Examples:(1)Peoplewereafraidtoleavetheirhouses,foralthoughthepolicehadbeenorderedtostandbyincaseofemergency;theywerejustasconfusedandhelplessasanybodyelse.Analysis:Thissentencehassomemeaningsfromthreelayersasfollowed:①peoplewereafraidtoleavetheirhouse;②althoughthepolicehadbeenorderedtostandbyincaseofemergency;③theywerejustasconfusedandhelplessasanybodyelse.Inthethreelayersofmeaning,thesecondlayerstandsforconcession,thethirdonestandsforreason,whilethefirstlayerstandsforresult,wecanmakeanarrangementasfollowingsaccordingtothenormsofChineseexpressionas:尽管警察已经接到命令,要做好准备以应付紧急情况,但人们不敢出门,因为警察也和其他人一样不知所措和无能为力。Next,let’sseemoreexamples:(2)Modernscientificandtechnicalbooks,especiallytextbooks,requirerevisionatshortintervalsiftheirauthorswishtokeeppacewithnewideas,observationsanddiscoveries.对于现代书籍,特别是对于教科书来说,要是作者希望自己书中的内容能与新概念、新观察到的事实和新发现同步发展的话,那么就应该每隔较短的时间将书中的内容重新修改。(3)TakinghiscuefromIbsen’sADoll’sHouse,inwhichtheheroine,Nora,leaveshome,becausesheresentsherhusband’streatingherlikeachild,thewriterLuXunwarnedthatNorawouldneedmoneytosupportherself;shemusthaveeconomicrightstosurvive.易卜生的剧作《玩偶之家》中的女主人公娜拉离家出走,因为憎恶她的丈夫像孩子一样对待她。作家鲁迅从中得到启示,从而告诫人们娜拉得需要钱来养活自己,她要生存就必须有经济上的权利。
    16
    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Conclusion
    ThelengthyEnglishsentenceplaysaveryimportantroleintranslation,sowemustpaymoreattentiontoit.ThisthesisstartswiththedefinitionofthelengthyEnglishsentence,thenittalksaboutthefeaturesoflongEnglishsentences,andwehavetohaveageneralunderstandingofthelengthyEnglishsentence,especiallythemodifiers,sointhisthesisImainlytalkaboutthepositionofmodifiers.Asweallknow,theEnglishsentencetendstobelongerandmorecomplicatedthantheChinesesentence.ThemainreasonliesinthatEnglishandChinesebelongtodifferentlanguagefamilies,soinpartthreeImainlytalkaboutthelinguistictransferoflongEnglishsentences,firstweshouldknowthedifferencesbetweenEnglishandChinese,inviewofwhich,adjustmentsarenecessaryintranslatingalongEnglishsentenceintoChinese,thenthelastoneImustsayisthepracticesofadjustments.ByconformingtothenormsoftheChineselanguage,thetranslationwillnotobscurethemessageconveyedbytheoriginalsentence.Butthemostimportantfactortodotranslationworkwellistheskillfulmasteryofmethodsoftranslation.Theninpartfour,ImainlyanalyzethelengthyEnglishsentences,andthenexpoundthemethodsandskillsofEnglish-Chinesetranslation.
    17
    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    References
    Baker,Mona.InOtherWords:TranslationCourse[M].Beijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,2000.Baker,Mona.RoutlegeEncyclopediaofTranslationStudies[M].NewYork:Routledge,1998.DirkDelabastita.TraductioEssaysonPunningandTranslation[M].London:St.JeromePublishing,1997.Gentzler,mEdwin.ContemporaryTranslationTheories[M].London:RoutledgeInc,1993.Halliday.AnIntroductiontoFunctionalGrammar[M].Beijing:ForeignTeachingandResearchPress,2000.Hatim,Mason.DiscourseandtheTranslator[M].Beijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,2001.Nida.E.A.TowardaScienceofTranslation[M].NewYork:NewYorkLongman,1985.PeterNewmark.ATextbookofTranslation[M].Shanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPress,2001.Thornborrow.PatternsinLanguageStylisticsforStudentsofLanguageandLiterature[M].Beijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,2000.WolframWilss.TheScienceofTranslation―ProblemsandMethods[M].Shanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPress,2001.陈宏薇.汉英翻译基础[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1996.范家材.英语修辞赏析[M].上海:上海交通大学出版社,1992.傅仲选.实用翻译美学[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1993.刘必庆.当代翻译理论[M].北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1999.唐松波,黄建霖.汉语修辞格大辞典[Z].北京:中国国际广播出版社,1989.余立三.英汉修辞比较与翻译[M].北京:商务印书馆,1985.
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    大庆石油本科生毕业设计(论文)
    Acknowledgements
    Thereareagreatnumberofpeopletowhomthisthesisowesagreatdeal.Firstofall,IwouldliketoextendmyheartfeltthankstoJinYinghao,myacademicsupervisor.Hervaluablecommentsmademegrasptheissuesinvolvedinmythesisandhelpedmesteermyworkintherightdirection.Ibenefitfromherknowledgeandunderstandingoflanguageandtranslation.Meanwhile,Iamprofoundlyindebtedtoherwarm-heartedsupportandencouragement.Iexpressmymanythankstotheteacherswhohaveinstructedmeduringmyuniversitystudy.Luckily,Ihavehadtheopportunitytostudyundertheirsupervision.Prof.ZhangJihua’seducationgreatlyfascinatesmeandhasmademelearnalotintranslation.LecturerZhangXuemei,HuiJingrui,WangBaiju,DongJinyu,andGuoXinyutaughtmealotinthefieldsoflinguistics,translation,andpedagogy.Iamgratefultotherespectableprofessorswhowillkindlychoosetoreviewmythesis.
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